By Kenneth Shields
This ebook explores the beginning and evolution of vital grammatical different types of the Indo-European verb, together with the markers of individual, demanding, quantity, point, and temper. Its important thesis is that a lot of those markers should be traced to unique deictic debris that have been included into verbal constructions for you to point out the 'hic and nunc' and diverse levels of remoteness from the 'hic and nunc'. The adjustments to which those deictic components have been topic are seen right here within the context of an Indo-European language very diverse from Brugmannian Indo-European, many beneficial properties of which, it's argued, seemed simply within the interval of dialectal improvement. This publication demanding situations a variety of conventional proposals concerning the Indo-European verb; all reconstructions contained in it are firmly in line with extant info and are consonant with confirmed ideas of linguistic swap.
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Extra info for A History of Indo-European Verb Morphology
Although "es- gradually came to acquire full status as a substantive verb (in addition to its copulative function) (cf. Pokorny (1959:340), on analogy with its sister root "bhew- and because of the natural tendency for a copulative to be generalized to express state or existence (cf. , the present tense). 5 More on the Imperative: The deictics in *u, *k, and *(e/o)/ and their formations I have already dealt with the origin of imperative formations in "-¢ and ,,-to tid; emphasizing their place in the general theory being developed in this chapJer.
According to the traditional view, Proto-Germanic possessed a third person plural present verbal ending in *-nb'- and in *-np-, both of which derive from IE *-(e/o)nti. The first shows the operation of Verner's Law arid the second does not. During the period of dialectal development within Germanic, it is assumed that Gothic, Old Norse. , Verner's Law variants]. On the other hand, Old English, Old Saxon, and Old Frisian [... ] had generalized Indo-European verb forms with accent on the thematic vowel, thus'leading in this group of dialects to the voiceless spirant (King 1968: 248).
It is significant that Li & Thompson (1978) cite evidence from Mandarin, Hebrew Palestinian Arabic, and Wappo "to show that one possible source of the cop~la morpheme in predicate nominal sentences is an anaphoric pronoun, with the mechanism of change involving a reanalysis of a topic-comment construction" (1978:419). For example, they argue that in Mandarin the copula shi';developed through the reanalysis of the topic-comment construction: Topic CO,mment Subject Predicate NP shi NP > NP shi NP this/that referring to the topic" (1978:427).
A History of Indo-European Verb Morphology by Kenneth Shields